aerobic

Loaded Carries: The What, The When and The Why

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Do reps that should be fast feel slow, even when they're light? Does something just feel missing from your training? Do your movements feel stale and uncomfortable? Or do you just flat out feel un-athletic? If you answered yes to any of those questions then I can almost guarantee you don’t do any type of loaded carries, and if you do, you probably aren’t programming them properly. Loaded carries are the most underutilized movements in today’s strength and conditioning field. The amount of versatility loaded carries can provide to a program is parallel to the barbell, really. The biggest reasons you should be doing loaded carries are:

1.  Stability

2.  Energy system development

3.  Recovery.

Stability, and I don’t mean single leg bosu squats. I mean stabilizing the spine in a safe, fixed position, while fighting the inertia of a load and then creating movement. This is a two pronged approach to teaching true stability in an athlete. In human gait there is minimal inertia fought and a minimal amount of reflexive stabilization needed. Reflexive stabilization is the inert firing of muscles to stabilize a moving part on the opposite side. In loaded carries, the athletes are forced to stabilize and control the load imposed in order to move.

An athlete who can properly stabilize moving parts will have a greater ability to consciously create pressure. This happens through strengthening the reflexive muscles of the core that are difficult to properly utilize. This can lead to major increases in intra-abdominal pressure and thickness of the trunk, which can then help prevent certain injuries.

It is not uncommon for athletes to have acute and sometimes debilitating injuries due to lack of stability throughout ranges of motion. If one can safely translate (walk) through space with load and train the reflexive stabilizers then this risk of injury greatly decreases. You can’t consciously control every single muscle in your system, reflexive stabilization saves you more than you give it credit for.

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Energy system development is the big boy. You cannot reach your specific goals if you don’t first have a proper foundation. The versatility of loaded carries can give you an easy to implement portal to any energy system you wish to engage in. This opens the door to multiple skills as well as safely increasing training stress. Slow and de-conditioned athletes alike will benefit more than they can imagine from this.

Loaded carries can develop the alactic and aerobic capacity simultaneously. This is possible by having an athlete perform very alactic runs followed by light walking or another low intensity exercise that will facilitate aerobic recovery for the next set. I will go into how to properly program and progress carries later in the article.

However, something important to understand is the gift of GPP you can give to an athlete. Sure it’s great to spend their whole off-season doing sport specific movements, but that’s what their pre and in-season training should be geared toward. Developing a large generalized work capacity is an opportunity to further improve and refine sport specific skill and the greatest gift we can give to our athletes IS the opportunity to improve.

Types of Carries

Our first step into how to properly implement loaded carries is to define the different types. I break them down into two categories: direct and indirect.

Direct

Directly loaded carries can be further broken down into anterior, posterior and parallel loads. Anterior carries are any type of carrying movement where the participant stabilizes the load on the anterior portion of the spine and are in direct contact with it. This includes sandbag, keg, hussafelt, conan’s wheel, kettlebell front rack walks, etc.

Posterior loaded carries are any type of carrying movement where the participant is in direct contact with a load on the posterior portion of the spine, this is mainly characterized by the yoke walk.

Zach Yoke

Finally, direct parallel loads are where the participant is in direct contact with the object but the load is parallel to the spine. This includes any hand loaded carry like farmers and any overhead walks.

Indirect

Indirect carries do not necessarily involve the participant actually carrying the object, however, they are still overcoming the inertia of load. I often refer to these more generally as moving events. This includes, prowler pushes, sled drags, and truck pulls etc.

The key to keeping your adaptations coming is to expose yourself to different types of carries before changing the protocol. Incorporating multiple types of loads and carries will allow an athlete to further their work capacity without increasing difficulty. Outside of strongman carries, utilize kettlebells and buddy carries as well to add variety.

Programming

Now that you are aware of the different types of carries we can implement, the next step is to define how we can program them. When creating a program, every movement chosen should directly reflect the goal of that program or block. Hence, I have categorized the different ways to program loaded carries based on your and/or your athlete’s goals:

Increase speed/alactic capacity

Using loaded carries to increase speed or expand the ability to fight off metabolic waste (alactic capacity) can be extremely effective in a short period of time. Often times with deconditioned athletes I choose light loaded carries over sprints. This is because the load imposed that the athlete must overcome acts as a limiting factor for them to “over sprint.” I wont go into the proper mechanics of sprinting, but squeezing and trying your hardest to go fast certainly isn’t the correct way.

The nice thing about loaded carries for speed is that there really isn’t any running. Although you are going as fast as possible, the gait pattern is still walking. There is no flight phase (i.e. the major difference between running and walking) in loaded carries because it just wouldn’t work. Why? Your reflexive stabilizers are not prime movers, although they can be powerful enough to carry heavy loads, they will never be powerful enough to carry heavy loads without a point of contact on the ground.

This lack of flight phase simplifies the movement and makes it more accessible to more populations. Programming carrying events for speed is simple. Vertically increase volume over a given distance while keeping speed constant. This means pick a distance to train (40-60ft) and a speed (<10s) to maintain. These two variables should stay relatively the same throughout the block. What you can manipulate to create adaptation is volume and intensity (surprise, surprise).

For most athletes new to carrying events that fit this category, I would recommend accumulating 200-300ft at a given speed with a light load. The overall feel of the protocol should not be higher than a 7/10 RPE. The key to truly improving speed is frequency, being able to do the same session 2-3 times a week will be far more beneficial then just “killing it” one day.

If you're a more advanced athlete looking to focus on increasing work capacity as opposed to maximal speed, I would recommend not going past 400ft. To further progress someone who has mastered loaded carries it is best to manipulate rest time. The reason I limit most carrying sessions to 400ft is because no matter how efficient the pattern, the ground reaction forces associated with carrying events is significantly higher than walking and although this stress can lead to great adaptation, too much stress will soar over the line of diminishing return and potentially lead to pain.

Examples:

Novice: 5x50ft 60% of max in under 9s. Rest as needed.

Advanced: 8x40ft 70% of max under 8s with 90s rest.

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Facilitate recovery

Carrying events are wonderful to facilitate recovery because of the high levels of stress imposed and very small amount of total volume needed. This fits better into the active recovery needs of a healthy athlete that hasn’t already built up excessive amounts of stress (the peak of the season or in a high volume strength block wouldn’t be ideal times). The fact that the participant is fighting inertia to stay “neutral” systemically engages the entire body. This gives it a great bang for your buck. You are able to reap the rewards of loaded carries while facilitating recovery.

Examples:

Novice: 3x50ft 50% of max under 9s

Advanced: 4x40ft 50% of max under 8s with 60s rest.

Improve GPP

A incredibly effective, and fun, way to increase work capacity is though loaded carries. Since they are loaded versions of walking they can be taken for long distances. The training variables you need to worry about here are rest time and distance. Load will take a back seat here while volume will play a secondary role. Due to the nature of this training the total amount of distance covered will be more variable since the load will be so low, but I would not recommend exceeding 600ft.

Increasing work capacity with this protocol can be done in two energy systems: the glycolytic and aerobic. Both can do an incredibly effective job, but there are some notable differences in programming for either energy system. In this scenario, rest time and distance are directly correlated with total volume, while work is inversely correlated with total volume.

The more glycolytic you would like to make your training the more distance you should cover per set with more rest time and less total sets. The opposite would be true for a more aerobic training session

Examples:

Novice:

Glycolytic: 3x150ft with 30-40% of max, rest as needed

Aerobic: 6x50ft with 40% of max with 45s rest

Advanced:

Glycolytic: 3x200ft with 30-40% of max, rest as needed

Aerobic: 10x40ft with 50% of max with 45s rest

Closing Thoughts

When training moving events I typically program them at the begging of a training session. Next time you squat, try hitting some yoke with one of these protocols and watch how much more powerful your squats feel. Producing high amounts of force over a short period of time will excite the nervous system and prepare you for lifting weights. An added benefit to programming your carries at the beginning of the session is that although it isn’t fatiguing it is an opportunity for the athlete to efficiently increase work capacity.

Loaded carries will give you a whole new world of development to dive into which will ultimately lead to an increase in performance. Not everyone will take a 1000lb yoke for a 50ft ride but I promise everyone has something great to gain from exposure to loaded carries regardless of their goals. Stop being slow, start being explosive. Stop being bored on the treadmill, start running with kegs.

The Top 5 Mistakes Semi-Experienced Lifters Make that Limit their Gains

You’ve been training for a while now. You’ve noticed gains in strength, size, and body composition. So have your sex partners. But progress has come to a screeching halt. Personal records (PRs) are few and far between. Training is fun and all, but it seems to be going nowhere.

I’ve been there. Years back, I remember having read a few training articles on T-Nation.com and thought I was the shit. Kept working out, pushing my limits, only to get hurt what seemed like every week.

Man, if I could have those days back…

Now that training other people is my career, it is my goal is to prevent you from making the same mistakes I made. Here are the five most common mistakes I see intermediate lifters make.

Mistake #1: They don’t have a structured plan

Everything you do in the gym should have a purpose. To find out what that purpose is, you first need to have an end goal in sight.

Set a goal

I used to bounce around from program to program, spinning my wheels and never making progress.

Find something you’re good at—powerlifting, strongman, intramural co-ed volleyball, whatever—and start heading down that path.

Focus on building strength instead of testing it

You’ve already realized your newbie gains. PRs will not come as easy anymore. They will be hard fought… and much more satisfying.

Your training needs to be planned over the long-term. The term we use in the fitness industry for this planning is “periodization”.

The idea is that you figure out when you’re going to compete, then you work backwards from there.

When your next competition is far away, your training should be focused on building up general qualities that transfer well to all sports, such as work capacity, aerobic power, and general strength. As you get closer to a competition, your training should become more and more specific and focused. Specificity is one of the guiding principles of smart, effective training, but spending all your time being specific with your training doesn’t give you a foundation upon which you can build. You have to do the things that you don’t like to do if you want to get better.

You have to go back to basics.

Track your progress

If you’re not making progress that you can track, then whatever you’re doing is not working.

Talk to a professional to figure out how to accomplish your goal

If you remember only one thing I say in this post, remember this: If you’re serious about your goal, you need a coach.

If you broke your leg, you would go to the doctor. Why would you not refer your training out to a professional who spends all of their time trying to get better at what they do?

Mistake #2: They never learn how to move well

Quality movement is absolutely essential for long-term gains.

Learn how to squat and bend

When squatting or bending under load (like when you’re deadlifting), keep your spine stable and load your legs by “pushing” through the floor instead of trying to pick the bar up. Avoid leading with your shoulders and arching your back.

If you need to relearn how to squat and bend, try a Kettlebell Deadlift.

Learn how to press

When pressing (like with a bench press), keep your shoulder blades stable and elbows tucked. If you don’t do this, it’s like you’re trying to shoot a cannon from a rowboat. A good exercise to try is the Dumbbell Floor Press.

Learn how to row

When rowing, always lead the movement with the shoulder blade. You should feel the muscles in your upper back working. A good exercise to try is the 3-point Dumbbell Row.

Learn how to be move on one leg

Single leg work isn’t fun, but it IS important. A good, albeit difficult exercise to try is the Single Leg Rufus Deadlift.

Do more reaching exercises

If you want to stay healthy, you’ve got to remember how to reach. This is especially important for those general phases of training we were discussing earlier.

When doing push ups, think about pushing your hands “through” the ground (all the way to China) before you finish your rep.

Mistake #3: They don’t get enough sleep

Training hard is only effective if you can recover from it. Restful sleep is essential to the recovery process.

Sleep quantity

Shoot for 7-9 hours each night.

Sleep quality

Avoid electronics before bed. Try to get on a schedule so that you go to bed and wake up at the same time every day. If you have sleep apnea, go see a doctor.

*Here's a good post by our buddies over at Precision Nutrition if you want to read more about sleep.

Mistake #4: They forget about their nutrition

In addition to sleep, nutrition is also essential to your recovery. Quicker Recovery → Harder Training → More Progress.

Become conscious of what you eat and why you eat it

I like prescribing a 3-day food log. Record everything you ingest, when you ingest it, and what you were doing at the time of ingestion. This is all the info you need to determine the number one change you can make to optimize your food intake.

Fill your gas tank with premium, not crap

If you’re trying to make your body a high performance machine, you should fill it with premium fuel, not sludge.

*Further Reading:  Nutrition:  How to Pick a Plan that Fits Your Goals

Mistake #5: They do the wrong type of conditioning work

Improper conditioning is a pet peeve of mine. Coaches everywhere run their athletes into the ground, making them worse instead of better.

What are you training for?

There are three basic systems in the body that produce energy. Determine the ones that your sport uses and then train those systems.

Don’t fall into the trap of doing conditioning simply because it “feels hard”. Any coach can make you puke, but can he or she make you better?

*Further Reading:  How Do You Train For the Long Haul?  Develop an Aerobic Base

Summary of the Top 5 Mistakes Semi-Experienced Lifters Make

Mistake #1: They don’t have a structured plan

Mistake #2: They never learn how to move well

Mistake #3: They don’t get enough sleep

Mistake #4: They forget about their diet

Mistake #5: They do the wrong type of conditioning work

Don’t fall into the same traps that I and so many others have fallen into. My goal is to teach, so if you know someone who you think would benefit from this, please forward it to them.

P.S. I made a whole 16-week program that is great for these intermediate lifters who need some guidance. You can even get the ebook, presentation, and first month of the program totally free of charge.

about the author

Lance Goyke, CSCS, is a Nerd Extraordinaire and secret admirer of lesbians everywhere whose expertise focuses on the human body. His clientele ranges from other trainers to kids to house moms to fighters to baseballers to anyone who needs to be taught how to exercise. Go invade his home base at www.LanceGoyke.com.

Programming Around An Injury: 5 Things You Have to Know

In all long term pursuits there are obstacles that define you. The path to success isn’t exactly linear. In the realm of iron, often times these obstacles are pain or injury related. And believe it or not…working through pain and/or injury usually isn’t your best option.

Way too often I see people loose their hard earned gains over an injury, and it’s sickening.

It’s important to understand that there are certain phases of an injury where it may not be in your best interest to train around it, however, there are certainly instances where an athlete can continue to make strategic progress toward their goal while rehabilitating an injury.

In essence, an injury doesn’t mean it’s time to stop training, it just means you have to be very smart in the way you approach training.

When it comes to making a full recovery, step one is to not let the injury define you:

You can still be a good deadlifter even if your lower back isn't allowing you to pull.

That national title can still be in your hands even with a tender ankle.

Ultimately, assuming an athlete isn't completely restricted by their injury, you can still implement certain modalities that'll get a training effect and boost performance.

Look at the Adaptations at Jeopardy

Cardiac output, blood pressure, and aerobic enzymes can drop in as little as a week, meaning aerobic adaptations quickly deplete. However, this can be combated with three lower intensity or two higher intensity aerobic sessions a week.

Anaerobic adaptations, on the other hand, tend to stick around a little longer and can be maintained with one to two moderate to vigorous training sessions per week. That means missing one or two heavy sessions a month won't kill your strength.

While this is outside the scope of this article, it's also important to understand the relationship between anaerobic and aerobic adaptations.  They are very much intertwined and play important roles in the functioning of each other.  To learn more about this, I'd recommend checking out our energy systems webinar by clicking here.

Classify

The next step is to objectively classify the functional capabilities surrounding the injury:

“How much pain free volume can you handle?

What are the restrictions in range of motion?

Are there external limitations (splint, casts, harness etc)?

Does the site of pain exhibit impaired recovery?”

Taking a deeper look at the adaptations at jeopardy, and classifying the scope of the problem are both absolutely critical to the success of your program.

Aerobic Strength Training

Aerobic strength training protocols are very effective and very underutilized training methods, especially in strength sports.  Aerobic adaptations are incredibly important for strength athletes for a multitude of reasons, but here are a few to get your head spinning

1.  Decrease in resting heart rate helps balance the autonomic nervous system via increased vagal tone

2.  Increases in stroke volume have a direct effect on the creation of pressure throughout the organism, and both of these (#1 and #2), in turn, increase cardiac output

3.  Increases in resting calcium levels and enzymes lead to much more powerful contractions

4.  VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor, which leads to growth hormone further down the cascade) increases in response to metabolic waste built up during training, and has a profound effect on recovery over time.

Some of my favorite protocols include: Charlie Francis style tempos paired bodyweight exercises, low impact unilateral plyometrics, and volume unilateral resistance training (rear foot elevated, half kneeling press, get-ups, etc).

Unilateral Work

Another very important tool to utilize is unilateral work, especially in those with one limb out of commission. The myth of ignoring it due to the creation of muscle imbalances isn't true. Motor program adaptations, especially if there's a lack of sensory-motor feedback to one limb, are spread to both arms.

Meaning if you have a broken ankle, doing unilateral plyometrics on the non injured ankle will benefit the injured side. This is essential in rehabilitating and maintaining adaptations on the affected side.

Some Samples

To help visualize what a program would look like I have attached two very different programs for two very different athletes with very different situations.

The first is Nick. He is amongst the most elite amateur strongmen in the nation, and has a fractured ring finger and torn ligament on his right side.  He has severe swelling in the finger, along with some daily pain and goes to physical therapy twice a week. Currently, he cannot grasp much in his right hand or overly extend his wrist, and he trains three days a week. His longterm goal is to get his Light Weight Pro Card in strongman, however, his current goal is to maintain his strength while improving movement quality and work capacity until the finger is completely healed. Due to this being his long term goal, most of his volume and time are spent in his movement prep. His resistance training, on the other hand, leans more toward aerobic strength to assist with recovery and to avoid over fatiguing his nervous system due to his limited move pool.

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The next athlete’s program I will share with you is Summer--a high level strongman athlete herself.  She's been dealing with chronic and debilitating foot pain in her right foot due to an ineffective surgery several years ago.  Thus, she cannot perform much running or load the foot frequently, and struggles with dorsiflexion.  To make matters even more complicated, she's currently in a boot trying to resolve the issue.

With all of that in mind, here are Summer's primary goals right now:  increase upper body muscle mass and strength.  In order to help facilitate that goal, her movement prep and resistance training are geared toward upper body volume.  Also, seeing as her injury may be longer in its healing process, she will go through multiple blocks with a similar template.

Here's a sample day of her training  (If you're interested in hearing more about Summer’s story, click here).

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Perhaps the most important part of programming for an injured athlete, besides keeping them as healthy as possible, is to keep their levels of motivation high.  Work hard to narrow their focus, and find things they can still work on despite their limitations.  For example, this could be an ideal time to set short term goals that aren’t always a priority, such as improving body composition or focusing on movement quality.

Lastly, be sure to take into consideration the impact a limited movement pool will have on programming volumes and intensity.  You cannot vary their routines to the extent you do a healthy athletes, so be sure to monitor volume and intensity very closely to avoid overtraining.

Hope you enjoyed the article, and post any questions or comments you have below.

about the author

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Andrew Triana “The Leucine Frog” is a promising young coach who has an intense passion for his clients success and writing. It is evident in his work that he is relentless in his pursuit of excellence. At 20 years old Andrew has produced National champions, World champions, Pro strongmen, and has helped many others reach their goals.  Follow him on Twitter (@AndrewTriana) and Instagram (@andtriana).

Holiday Circuit Training: Stay Lean and Save Time

It’s that time of the year again. That time when fitness fanatics such as you and I are declared war upon by delicious and unforgiving foods, parties at the exact same time we usually workout, and so on so forth. While the food and activities surrounding the holidays are great, you need to increase your awareness to avoid losing your hard earned gains.

In other words, you need a strategy.

So let’s put this in a situation. You get out of work at 5pm, and there’s a holiday party you have to be at by 6:30pm. Thus, you can’t spend your usual one to two hours at the gym.

By the time you get to the gym and change, it’s already 5:15pm. You have to be out of there with something accomplished by 6 to then get home, clean up, get your swag on, and get to the gathering.

This should be a no brainer, but 45 minutes is more than enough time to get an awesome workout in. You just have to turn your beast mode on and be ready to get nasty.

And no, the way to do this is not slugging on a treadmill for 30 minutes, but rather via a training methodology known as high intensity circuit training.

Circuit training is moving from one exercise to another without resting, but don't confuse this with interval training:  high intensity bouts followed by a controlled rest period repeated for x number of reps (the Tabata 20 on/10 off has become a well known example).

Although interval training is effective, today I’m talking all about circuit training, the benefits of it for fat loss and athletic performance, the physiological effect it has on your body, how to properly design a circuit training program, how to fuel up for this type of training, and the philosophy of quality over quantity.

Let me start by giving you a few reasons why you should have circuit training in your current program if you don't already.

It is time efficient:  you can get a full warm up, main workout, and cool down in in less than 45 minutes.

You operate in an anaerobic state (no oxygen available to the body) while circuit training, which can actually increase your aerobic capacity (VO2 Max), which means you can work longer and recover quicker.

*note from James:  Don't get confused here.  We've talked before on the site about how adaptations from anaerobic glycolysis directly butts heads with aerobic development, and that's still true.  What Nick is talking about, more specifically, is the contractile ability or strength of your heart.  By working near a maximal heart rate for 30-90 seconds, you can increase the force with which your heart contracts, therefore pumping out more blood with each contraction.  This is a more advanced technique, and works on a different aspect of aerobic development, but can still be utilized to squeeze out as much aerobic capacity as possible.  Ultimately, your heart rate dictates the adaptation, so it's a good idea to track it throughout your workout.

Depending on intensity and duration, you continue to burn calories for 16-48 hours after a circuit training session. This is credit to EPOC or excess post exercise oxygen consumption. More on that below!

You will see massive improvements in anaerobic conditioning, speed, power, agility, muscle hypertrophy, and most of all mental toughness.

It is a great tool to structure around your heavy lifting days to trim body fat.

It is fun, challenging, outside of the box, and you feel like you’re the hulk while you’re doing it.

EXCESS POST EXERCISE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION

The best way to explain EPOC, and how it keeps your body burning calories after your workout, is the credit card metaphor used by Anja Garcia. Since you're operating in an anaerobic state (without oxygen) while circuit training, your body is building up lactic acid and goes into an oxygen debt (just like spending money that you don’t have yet). Now, after the workout, your body has to work to replenish the oxygen debt and flush out that lactic acid.  This process takes energy, and thus burns more calories. How long it takes your body to recover is dependent on the intensity and duration of the workout.

DESIGNING THE PROGRAM

The first thing that you should ask when designing a circuit training program is, “what am I preparing for and how do I make this program relevant to my goals?” If you are working out simply because you love to work out and stay fit, then circuit training can be a great vehicle for staying lean and you can take whatever avenue you want. But if you’re approaching it from an athletic performance stand point, you need to make your circuits relevant to the demands of your game.

I will give an example. I am a hockey player; the average hockey shift is probably about 30 seconds to a maximum of 1.5 minutes. So when I design my circuits, I want to make them similar in length and physiological demand of a hockey shift. To give you an idea, here is what a sample round might look like for me:

Treadmill sprint, 20 seconds, 12 mph.

Dumbbell bent over row, 8ea arm

20 pushups

All three moves are done straight through without resting then you repeat. If you rest between sets (every time you do all three through) is dependent on what you’re preparing for, what adaptation you're looking to get, and what level of conditioning you’re at. For a Crossfit athlete or martial artist, I would say absolutely no rest between sets because of the high volume/endurance nature of what they do.  Again, all of this will be dictated by where the athlete currently is, and where he or she wants to go.

For example, if you're an MMA or Crossift athlete with a resting heart rate in the 70's, then a circuit training session would look drastically different for you than someone who has a heart rate in the 50's.  You first need to acquire some aerobic capacity before you tackle anything else.  Thus, your circuits would be at a lower intensity, with a heart rate between 120-150 BPM.

Another example is hockey, aka my game, where we rest between shifts.  Thus, I might take a short rest between sets.   A great way to gauge if you’re ready to get into your next set is to monitor your heart rate.  In particular, you're looking for your heart rate to drop back down to 120 BPM because it signifies full recovery.

Again, once you've identified where you are, and what adaptations need to take place to get you where you want to be, your circuit training sessions will be driven by your heart rate.

Let me translate that sample round I gave you, and make it into a template for you to use when you’re designing your program:

1A. Metabolic move

Sprint, agility ladder, fast pace ropes, prowler pushes, mountain climbers, jumping jacks, medicine ball slams, something that gets you moving and shoots up your heart rate. Usually like to do this move for time. 15-30 seconds.

1B. Opposing muscle group to 1A

If you did a sprint in 1A, move to an upperbody/core move such as a push-up, shoulder press, russian twist, or front bridge plank. The reps or time frame you do here is dependent on the move. For a general prescription, it should take about 25-30seconds. Also, keep in mind that your heart rate is going to be high from 1A, so keep the loads lower here.

1C. Opposing muscle group to 1B

A simple example would be if you did a bicep curl in 1B, you do a tricep pushdown in 1C. The reps or time frame you do here is dependent on the move. For a general prescription, it should take about 25-30seconds.

The combination of all three moves equals a round. Do each round 2-3 times straight through. Have at least 3 rounds for every time you do a circuit training session.

Disclaimer: The example moves and exercise prescriptions I have given here are for a general consensus not speaking to any one individual. Adjust according to your own fitness levels and abilities.

FUEL UP

If you stay within the template I just gave you, your circuit rounds can last anywhere from 30 seconds to two minutes. Given the intensity of these circuits and the fact you'll be working hard for 30-90 seconds, your body will be physiologically operating in what is called Anaerobic Glycolysis.

*note from James:  this depends on the structure of the circuit, but for the type of circuit Nick is prescribing you will spend the majority of your time in a "Lactic state."  But note that it's important to acquire a near maximal heart rate in order to improve the contractile strength of the heart.  You don't just want to slosh around above your anaerobic threshold, unless the demands of your sport etc. require it.

Glycolysis is the breakdown of stored glycogen/glucose (carbohydrates) in the muscle to produce ATP (our body’s primary energy source) when no oxygen is available.

To put that in more simple terms, carbs are crucial for this type of work. So do your best to get in quality, denser carbohydrates throughout the day and/or around your workout.  This will help not only ensure that you have enough energy for your workout, but it will also aid in recovery.

One more nutritional thought I want to share with you comes from my own trial and error, and it's on the subject of meal timing. I have found that these workouts are best when you feel light. Keep your big meals at least 4 hours from these workouts. You can have a small snack like a piece of fruit or a Cliff bar one hour out.

QUALITY OVER QUANTITY

When discussing circuit training, the idea of quality over quantity has to be covered. Circuit training is not throwing a random osh kosh of exercises together, doing them sloppy, and lying on the ground from exhaustion by the end of the workout. When you are looking at that template I gave and trying to pick your exercises, always ask yourself:

“Why? How does this fit in conjunction with the other exercises and is this going to make me better?”

Yes, you want to feel like you got in an awesome workout, but more importantly it needs to fit in with your overall goals.  But the idea of throwing moves together just to be exhausted needs to abolished. Do not work to be tired; work to perform!

About the Author

Nick Mancini is a young up and comer in the fitness industry. Since age 18, Nick has been a certified trainer under the National Strength and Conditioning Association. His mission as a coach is too not only help his clients loose fat and gain muscle, but to inspire and empower his people to pursue higher ground in life.  He is currently working on a project to offer his services online called Faith Fire Fight.  Nick studies at The College of New Jersey majoring in exercise sciences and plays for their hockey team.

How Do You Train For The Long Haul? Develop An Aerobic Base

Note from James:  Today's guest post comes from a friend of mine Mike Sirani.  Mike does great work, and I was pumped when he agreed to put this post together.  Enjoy!  

P.S.  If you'd like to be considered for a guest post, then go here

Be honest with yourself, when is the last time you had to wait for something you wanted?

In today’s world, waiting is a thing of the past, and patience is foreign to most 20-something year olds.

Want food? Let’s go to the drive-thru.

Need to deposit a check? Take a picture of it.

Want to talk to girls? Just swipe right.

In a society that wants results fast, fitness has followed suit. High-intensity training has become an everyday staple in the workout routines of many young adults.

You see, the human body is extremely efficient and it will do what it has to in order to adapt and survive when placed under stress.

Think of starting a high-intensity, “no pain, no gain” training program as a crash diet. Drastically cutting calories will lead to rapid weight loss, but eventually the scale stops moving. You’ll begin to feel tired, have little energy, and let’s face it: you’re not going to be strong.

Continually training with a high-intensity program is quite similar. Results will come quick as your body adapts to high levels of stress. Next thing you know, you’re telling all of your friends how (insert name of training program here) is the best thing ever, and how you’re going to go even harder next week, striving for better results.

Eventually, sooner than later for most, the fun will stop. Successes will slow down or cease, you’ll become worn out, lose motivation, and/or get injured.

Developing a robust aerobic system will help to prevent the above scenario and allow you to better attack anaerobic training when the time comes.

An Aerobic Base, You Must Have

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This is where developing an aerobic base comes into play. Picture your conditioning as building a pyramid. It is crucial to have a big sturdy base, and that base is something that can’t be built in a matter of days. It takes weeks and months of consistent work.

The base of your pyramid grows bigger through achieving eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy, better delivery of oxygen to working muscles, an increase in the number and size of mitochondria and greater capillary density, an increase in aerobic enzymes, and a shift of the autonomic nervous system to a more parasympathetic state (rest and digest).

The development of your aerobic system is paramount towards your ability to recover from intense training sessions.

Don’t get me wrong and think all I do is work on increasing the size of my mitochondria. If you want to be a stud, you better get in there and move around some heavy weight.  But, if you’re into being a monster for the long haul, it is crucial you’re able to recover better than anyone else.

Monsters can reciprocate between their sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.

Monsters can deadlift 3x their bodyweight, but also have a resting heart rate under 60 beats per minute.

Monsters can turn it on and shut it down.

And without the ability to shut it down, you won’t be a monster for long.

Off Switches

Now that you understand the value of your aerobic system, I want to give you tools for building the base of your pyramid. Think of these tools as off switches. If you’re in the midst of training in an aerobic block, think of it as collecting off switches and making your pyramid base bigger. If you’re currently in a higher intensity training block, use these off switches in a more literal sense – as a way to promote recovery between intense training sessions.

  1. Cardiac Output Training

Cardiac output development is continuous activity. This is what you think of when someone tells you that they did “cardio.” It can be done by walking, biking, or on other pieces of aerobic equipment.

This type of traditional cardio can become very monotonous and quite boring, so consider choosing a modality, or combination of modalities, listed below:

Sled Pushing or Dragging

Medicine Ball Throws

Slideboard

Bodyweight Circuits

The important part here is that you purchase a heart rate monitor, and keep your heart rate between 120-150 beats per minute for anywhere between 30-75 minutes.

At Pure Performance Training, we’ve had a ton of success using low threshold developmental movements that promote reciprocal movement and abdominal strength. Below is an example of a circuit used during a cardiac output training day.

A1) Bear Crawl Box x10 yards/each

A2) Sled Push x40 yards

A3) Half-Turkish Get Ups x6/side

A4) Push-Pulls x10/side

A5) Supine KB Pullover x10

  1. Tempo Training

Tempo training will lead to hypertrophy of slow twitch muscle fibers.

Unlike cardiac output training, which focuses more on central adaptation, tempo training will lead to adaptation of specific tissues. The exercises that you can choose here are limitless. Below are a few of my favorites:

Squats

RDL’s

Split Squats

Push Ups

Landmine Presses

Focus on performing the exercise with a 303 tempo. Thus, 3 seconds on the way down, no pause at the bottom, and 3 seconds on the way up. It is key to keep constant tension throughout the entire set.

You can progress tempo training by either increasing the number of sets (ex. moving from 3 sets on week 1, to 6 on week 4) or by increasing the time of the set (ex. 45 seconds to 60 seconds).

High Intensity Continuous Training (HICT)

HICT training will develop the oxidative properties of fast-twitch muscle fibers. In other words, it makes you stronger and more explosive for longer.

Be warned though because this type of training is tedious, so I highly recommend finding a friend, doing it outside on a nice day, or making a sweet playlist – because you can get bored quickly.

Here's how to do it:

Using either a spin bike (set to a high resistance) or performing step-ups (with a weight vest on), explosively perform 1 rep, rest 3-5 seconds in between reps, and repeat for 10-20 minutes.  For example, do one step up as explosively as possible, rest 3-5 seconds, do another step up on the opposite leg as explosively as possible, rest 3-5 seconds, and continue for 10-20 minutes.

To progress HICT training, you'll want to increase the total amount of time you work for.  You can do this by by increasing the time of your set (moving from 10-15 minutes), or by breaking up shorter timed sets into a series (doing three 10 minute sets)

Respiration

I wanted to touch on this briefly.

Just as aerobic fitness causes a shift towards the parasympathetic nervous system, exhalation does the same--fully exhaling will cause the parasympathetic nervous system to fire.

Living in such a go-go society, many of us are hyper-inflated and have no idea what it feels like to fully exhale. To compliment aerobic training, clients of mine also learn how to properly respire with an emphasis on getting air out.

Finishing the Pyramid

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Once you’ve built a substantial base for your pyramid, you’ll be able to construct the above layers and really get after you anaerobic training.  Think of this this way:  the larger your base, the larger the subsequent layers can be on top of it.  This is primarily because you'll be able to recover like a champ from high intensity training, and thus be able to push it more often.

Ultimately, your ability to shut it down after going beast mode will be what makes you a monster for the long haul.

about the author

Mike Sirani is a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS) and Licensed Massage Therapist. He works at Pure Performance Training in Needham, Massachusetts. He earned a Bachelor’s of Science Degree in Applied Exercise Science, with a concentration in Sports Performance, from Springfield College, and a license in massage therapy from the Cortiva Institute in Watertown, MA. He was also a member of the Springfield College baseball team, and interned at Cressey Performance in Hudson, MA.  You can connect with Mike on Facebook and Twitter.